Requirements for Bibliography in a manuscript

Rules for formatting the bibliography

The bibliography is formatted with 11 pt.

Bibliography arranged in alphabetical order according to APA style, 7th edition (2020) –

If the text is in Bulgarian, the sources are first in Cyrillic alphabetical order, then in Latin alphabetical order.

Legal and normative documents are written after scientific sources.

Lists of analysed media publications, archival documents, etc., are presented in an appendix after the bibliography.

The presence of DOI (digital object identifiers) is indicated at the end of each source included in the bibliography and in citations and references.

Examples of DOI

Examples with DOI

Patil, K., & Kulkarni, M. S. (2019). Artificial intelligence in financial services: Customer chatbot advisor adoption, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 9(1), 2278. DOI: 10.35940/ijitee.A4928.119119.

Yan, G. & Almeida Santos, C. (2009). “China Forever”: Tourism Discourse and Self-Orientalism. Annals of Tourism Research, (36)2, 295-315.

Dirlik, A. (1996). Chinese History and the Question of Orientalism. History and Theory, (35)4, 96-118. Retierved on 10.01.2022.



All bibliographic descriptions of sources used in Cyrillic alphabet (in Bulgarian) must be followed by transliteration in square brackets after the Cyrillic description. Transliteration is mandatory in accordance with the Transliteration Act If you need help with this, use the following standardized tool for transliteration from Cyrillic to Latin:


Фройд, З. (2014). Психология на несъзнаваното. София: Colibri. [Froyd. Z. (2014). Psihologia na nesaznavanoto. Sofia: Colibri.]

Freud, S. (2014). Psychology of the unconscious. Sofia: Colibri.

Ериксън, Е. (2013). Идентичност: младост и криза. (прев. Людмила Андреева). София: Рива. [Eriksan, E. (2013). Identichnost: mladost i kriza. (prev. Lyudmila Andreeva). Sofia: Riva.]

Erickson, E. (2013). Identity: Youth and Crisis. (trans. Lyudmila Andreeva). Sofia: Riva.

Харалампиев, К. (2021). Публична комуникация и COVID 19. За страха от грешката от втори ред. Реторика и комуникации, 48, 103-113. последно посещение на 21.11.2021. [Haralampiev, K. (2021). Publichna komunikatsia i COVID 19. Za straha ot greshkata ot vtori red. Retorika i komunikatsii, 48, 103-113. posledno poseshtenie na 21.11.2021.]

On the fear of type II error

Haralampiev, K. (2021). On the fear of type II error, Rhetoric and Communications, 48, 103-113. Retrieved on 21.11.2021.


Rhetoric and Communications Journal follows APA style, 7th edition (2020) for bibliography, citations and references.


Books one author

Аристотел. (1986). Реторика. София: Наука и изкуство.

Aristotle (1986). Rhetoric. Sofia: Science and Art.

Квинтилиан. (1986). Обучението на оратора. (прев. Макарий Порталски). София: Наука и изкуство.

Quintilian (1986). Training of and Orator. (trans. Macariy of Portalski). Sofia: Science and Art.

Еко, У. (2020). Pape Satan Aleppe – Хроники на едно течно общество. София: Колибри.

Eco, U. (2020). Pape Satan Aleppe – Chronicles of a fluid society. Sofia: Colibri.

Tindale, C. W. (2015). The Philosophy of Argument and Audience Reception. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Galimberti, U. (2012). Il Corpo. Milano: Feltrinelli.

Book two authors

Perelman, C., & Olbrechts–Tyteca, L. (1969). The New rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, J. (1980, 2003). Metaphors we live by. Originally published: Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Book more than two authors

Broek, van den J., Koetsenruijter, W., Ling, E., & Smit, L. (2012). Visual Language. Perspectives for Both Markers and Users. Hague: Eleven International Publishing.

Protess, D. L., Cook, F. L., Doppelt, J. C. et al. (1991). The Journalism of Outrage. Investigative Reporting and Agenda Building in America. New York: Guildford Press.

Book second or third edition

Donnelly, A., & Dalal-Clayton, B. (1998). A Directory of Impact Assessment Guidelines. (2nd ed.). London: International Institute for Environment and Development.

Case, D. O. (2012). Looking for Information: A Survey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs and Behavior. (3rd ed.). UK: Emerald Group Publishing.

Book in translation

Аристотел. (1995). Политика. (прев. Анастас Герджиков). София: Отворено общество. [Aristotel. (1995). Politika. (prev. Anastas Gerdzhikov). Sofia: Otvoreno obshtestvo.]

Aristotle. (1995). Politics. (trans. Anastas Gerdzhikov). Sofia: Open Society.

Article one author

Добрева, С. (2018). Съвременни модели за речево поведение сред младите хора в България. Проблеми на устната комуникация, 2018, том 11, брой 1, 281-296. Великотърновски университет „Св. св. Кирил и Методий“ – Университетско издателство. DOI:

Dobreva, S. (2018). Modern models of speech behavior among young people in Bulgaria. Issues in Oral Communication, 2018, Volume 11, Issue 1, 281-296. University of Veliko Tarnovo “St. St. Cyril and Methodius” – University Publishing House. DOI:

Goodwin, J. (2003). Students’ perspective on Debate exercises in Content Area Classes. Communication Education, 52(2), 157-163.

Article two authors

Pollak, J. M., & Kubrin, C. E. (2007). Crime in the News: How Crimes, Offenders and Victims are Portrayed in the Media. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 14(1), 59-83.

Walgrave, S., & De Swert, K. (2004). The Making of the (Issues of the) Vlaams Block, Political Communication, 21(4), 479-500.

Article three authors

Dreisiebner, S., März, S., & Mandl, T. (2022). Information behavior during the Covid-19 crisis in German-speaking countries, Journal of Documentation, 78, 7, 160-175. DOI:

Article from an electronic resource previously published

Dadaczynski, K., Okan, O., Messer, M., Leung, A. Y. M., Rosario, R., Darlington, E., & Rathmann, K. (2021). Digital Health Literacy and Web-Based Information-Seeking Bahaviors of University Students in Germany During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-sectional Survey Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(1), 1-17. Retrieved on 16.06.2023.

Article in electronic journal

Teckshawer, J. (2023). 5G Impacts, Internet of Things (IoT) and Businesses in Developing Countries, Technium Social Science Journal, 46, 87-104. Retrieved on 29.08.2023. DOI:

Вълков, И. (2020). Процеси на политизация в българската медийна среда, Реторика и комуникации, 42, 48-58, последно посещение на 26.03.2022. [Valkov, I. (2020). Protsesi na politizatsia v balgarskata mediyna sreda, Retorika i komunikatsii, 42, 48-58, posledno poseshtenie na 26.03.2022.]

Valkov, I. (2020). Processes of politicization in the Bulgarian media environment, Rhetoric and Communications, 42, 48-58, Retrieved on 26.03.2022.

Publication in proceedings or collective monograph with editors needed

Wilson, D., & Sperber, D. (2004). Relevance Theory. In L. R. Horn, & G. Ward (Eds.), The Handbook of Pragmatics (pp. 607-613). Oxford: Blackwell.

Norton, L. E. (1982). Nature and benefits of academic debate. In Keefe, C, Harte, T.B., & Norton, L.E. (Eds.), Introduction to Debate (pp. 24-40). New York: Macmillan.

Chapter from a book

Groarke, L. (2013). The Elements of Argument: Six Steps to a Thick Theory. In G. Kisicek & I. Zagar (Eds.), Digital Library What Do We Know about the World? Rhetorical and Argumentative Perspectives. (pp. 25–44). Ljubljana: Windsor Studies on Argumentation.

Scientific paper published in the proceedings or website of a scientific conference

Lee, Y. C., Yamashita, N., Huang, Y., & Fu, W., (2020). I Hear You, I Feel You’: Encouraging Deep Self-disclosure through a Chatbot. In: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, New York paper no. DOI:10.1145/3313831.3376175.

Scientific publication – editors

Agnew, C. R. (Ed.). (2014). Social influences on romantic relationships: Beyond the dyad. Cambridge University Press.

Agnew, C. R., & South, S. C. (Eds.). (2014). Interpersonal relationships and health: Social and clinical psychological mechanisms. Oxford University Press.

Electronic resources

Seesaw Digital Citizenship Guidelines and Posters. Retrieved on 27.12.2017

Reports published online

Mattsson, M., & Pirskanen, S. (1998). Gecos Report on Virtual Cross-Cultural Teams. Helsinki University of Technology TAI Research Centre Laboratory of Work Psychology and Leadership. Retrieved on 10.02.2020.


Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias

Merriam-Webster. (2008). Braggadocio. In Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary. Merriam-Webster.

Compact Oxford English Dictionary. (2007). Oxford University Press.

British business dictionary. Retrieved on 10.02.2018.


Critelli, M. (2015). How a secondary school as an organization defines and embeds the term college readiness. (dissertation). Rowan University. Record ID: 2058159. Full text PDF: Retrieved on 09.08.2023.


Legal, government and administrative documents and reports

Наказателен кодекс. ДВ. Министерство на правосъдието. В сила от 01.05.1968 г. Law-making process последно посещение на 10.08.2023.

Penal Code. SJ. Department of Justice. In force since 01.05.1968 Law-making process. last visit on 10.08.2023.

Световен мониторингов доклад относно Образование и приобщаване: Всички означава всички, (2021). достъпен на:

World Monitoring Report on Education and Inclusion: All Means All, (2021). available at:


Commission Regulation (EC) No 28/2004 of 5 January 2004 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the detailed content of intermediate and final quality reports OJ L 5, 9.1.2004, p. 42–56 (ES, DA, DE, EL, EN, FR, IT, NL, PT, FI, SV), Euro-lex. Retrieved on 10.01.2020.

Reports of corporations and companies

2018 Annual Report and Form 10K (2018).–packard–company. Retrieved on 10.01.2020.

New Development Bank information portal. (20 March 2022). Goa declaration at 8th BRICS summit. BRICS. Retrieved in 20.03.2022.

S&P Global Market Intelligence. (2022). Get your company started on the road to sustainability. Retrieved in 20.03.2022.

Kindle версия

Graeber, D. (2021). The Dawn of Everything: A New History of Humanity [Kindle Edition] достъпна на The Dawn of Everything: A New History of Humanity (English Edition) eBook : Graeber, David: Kindle Store.

Video lectures on Coursera, MOOCs, etc.

Plapp, М. (2020). How to Write and Publish Scientific paper. Coursera. Retrieved on  09.08.2023.

Video presentations

Pariser, Е. (2011). Beware online “filter bubbles”. Retrieved on 08.08.2023.


PowerPoint presentation

Rhetoric (2008).